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Biology: Home

This guide provides a set of resources, available through the CCNY's Library for beginning research in biology. This list is not exhaustive or comprehensive. Visit our home page for additional resources.




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The ENCODE Project: Encyclopedia Of DNA Elements

Figure 1: Beyond the sequence. "The ENCODE project provides information on the human genome far beyond that contained within the DNA sequence — it describes the functional genomic elements that orchestrate the development and function of a human. The project contains data about the degree of DNA methylation and chemical modifications to histones that can influence the rate of transcription of DNA into RNA molecules (histones are the proteins around which DNA is wound to form chromatin). ENCODE also examines long-range chromatin interactions, such as looping, that alter the relative proximities of different chromosomal regions in three dimensions and also affect transcription. Furthermore, the project describes the binding activity of transcription-factor proteins and the architecture (location and sequence) of gene-regulatory DNA elements, which include the promoter region upstream of the point at which transcription of an RNA molecule begins, and more distant (long-range) regulatory elements. Another section of the project was devoted to testing the accessibility of the genome to the DNA-cleavage protein DNase I. These accessible regions, called DNase I hypersensitive sites, are thought to indicate specific sequences at which the binding of transcription factors and transcription-machinery proteins has caused nucleosome displacement. In addition, ENCODE catalogues the sequences and quantities of RNA transcripts, from both non-coding and protein-coding regions."* 

 * Ecker, J. R., Bickmore, W. A., Barroso, I., Pritchard, J. K., Gilad, Y., & Segal, E. (2012). Genomics: ENCODE explained. Nature, 489(7414), 52-55. (CCNY HAS ACCESS TO THIS JOURNAL; SEARCH E JOURNAL LIST A to Z )

From Genome Function to Biomedical Insight: ENCODE and Beyond March 10-11, 2015, the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) workshop videos and slides.

The ENCODE Project: ENCyclopedia Of DNA Elements Overview from the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI).

ENCODE Web Focus Related articles on ENCODE from Nature.

ENCODE Results from 2013 to present ENCODE results from 2013 and later are available from the ENCODE Project Portal.

ENCODE Results from 2003 to 2012 ENCODE Results from 2003 to 2012 from UCSC (University of California, Santa Cruz).

Nature ENCODE Explorer Access the collected papers by exploring the thematic threads that run through them, with topics such as DNA methylation, RNA or machine learning.


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Claudia Lascar


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