Today, authors are frequently responsible for not only finding the pictures for their publications, but securing the permission for copyright as well.
It's much easier to use images from copyright-free or copyright-friendly collections than from the general world. However, sometimes, specific images are necessary.
Locating Copyright Holders
There are several ways to locate the holders of copyrighted images. In addition to searching the web, two books identify larger holders of image-copyright (institutions) and the officers who control them:
University of Reading WATCH (Writers, Artists and their Copyright Holders) site - a clearinghouse for copyright holders
Bielstein, Susan M. Permissions: A Survival Guide: Blunt Talk about Art as Intellectual Property. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006. Cohen Library KF3050.B54 2006
Evans, Hilary. Picture researcher’s handbook : an international guide to picture sources and how to use them. Cohen Library N4000 .E8 1996
Frequently, permission for copyright is easier to secure when the copyright holder does not also have to provide the image as well. When contacting the copyright holder, if you state you have an acceptable image to use, it's simply a matter of of signing a waiver (and paying a fee).
(C)opyright @ CUNY is a web resource designed to support the CUNY community in making independent, informed decisions about copyright compliance and educational fair use.
Copyright Matrix - Cornell University's table to figure out the law, not necessarily for art (but see "Special Cases" section at end).
Copyright & Art - Christine Sundt's page and links to making the "reasonable effort" to locating art copyright holders, including "orphaned works" (those you can no longer tell if copyright holders exist).
Fair Use Guidelines For Digital Images provides useful information for assessing fair use of digital images.
The Metropolitan Museum of Art's Terms and Conditions page is pretty standard for museum copyright.
Columbia University's "Copyright, Museums, and Licensing of Art Images".
Copyright Ownership in Works of Art and Images is a discussion of the current state of copyright practice limited to copyright in works of visual art and architecture and in images that reproduce them.
The Copyright Slider allows you to decide if a work published first in the U.S.A. is protected by copyright.
The Fair Use Evaluator can help you decide if you are using copyrighted materials "fairly" under the U.S. Copyright Law.
Know Your Copy Rights - A project of the Association of Research Libraries providing useful information on using copyrighted material in an academic setting.
VAGA - Visual Artists and Galleries Association, Inc. artists rights organization and copyright collective for 500 American artists and affiliated foreign artists worldwide.
ARS - Artists' Rights Society. The copyright, licensing, and monitoring organization for many 20th and 21st-century visual artists in the United States.
Whenever electronic course content is incorporated into Blackboard sites--including both licensed images and those used under fair use--faculty must be careful not to turn on "guest" access to their sites. The default is restricted access to registered students only. Turning on guest access could both violate license terms and vitiate a fair use argument where images are used.